2020, issue 3, p. 74-84

Received 02.09.2020; Revised 14.09.2020; Accepted 23.10.2020

Published 27.10.2020; First Online 05.11.2020


Previous  |  Full text (in Ukrainian)  |  Next


UDC 004.056

Multilevel Identification Friend or Foe of Objects and Analysis of the Applicability of Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms for Information Security

V. Korolyov ORCID ID favicon Big,   M. Ogurtsov ORCID ID favicon Big,   A. Khodzinsky *

V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

* Correspondence: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Introduction. Widespread use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the civilian and military spheres requires the development of new algorithms for identification friend or foe of targets, as used in the Armed Forces of Ukraine (AFU) devices of the "Parol" system are designed to service approximately 110 objects military equipment. AFU automation systems allow the use of additional sources of information about various objects from civil or special data transmission networks, which can be the basis for building a networked multi-level system of state recognition. Predictions of the development of quantum computers foresee the possibility of breaking modern algorithms for information security in polynomial time in the next 5-10 years, which requires the development and implementation of new encryption algorithms and revision of modern parameters.

The purpose of the article is to develop a new algorithm for state recognition of objects, which can be scaled to process the required number of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. Potential threats to classical cryptographic protection algorithms for data networks, which will result in the execution of algorithms such as Grover and Shore on quantum computers, were also discussed.

Results. The article proposes a new multilevel algorithm of state recognition based on modern cryptographic methods of information protection, which allows to perform reliable automated identification of objects, scale systems using data on potential targets from other sources through secure special networks. Grover's search algorithm does not give a strong increase in key search performance for symmetric encryption algorithms, so there is no need to increase the key lengths for this type of information security algorithms. Post-quantum asymmetric encryption algorithms require additional study and comprehensive testing of information security or increasing the key lengths of cryptographic algorithms, which corresponds to the number of qubits, i.e. more than twice. The most promising is the family of asymmetric post-quantum cryptographic algorithms based on supersingular isogenic elliptic curves.

Conclusions. The developed algorithm of identification friend or foe of objects is more secure compared to existing algorithms and is focused on the use of modern on-board computers and programmable radio modems. Shore's algorithm and the like will be a significant threat to modern asymmetric cryptography algorithms when the number of qubits of quantum computers exceeds the number of bits in public keys more than twice.


Keywords: identification friend or foe, symmetric encryption, asymmetric cryptography, quantum computer, post-quantum cryptography.


Cite as: Korolyov V., Ogurtsov M., Khodzinsky A. Multilevel Identification Friend or Foe of Objects and Analysis of the Applicability of Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms for Information Security. Cybernetics and Computer Technologies. 2020. 3. P. 74–84. (in Ukrainian) https://doi.org/10.34229/2707-451X.20.3.7



           1.     Rudinskas D., Goraj Z., Stankūnas J. Security Analysis Of UAV Radio Communication System. Aviation. 2009. 13 (4). P. 116–121. https://doi.org/10.3846/1648-7788.2009.13.116-121

           2.     Ogurtsov M.I. Development of a secure data exchange protocol for special networks. Matematychne ta komp’yuterne modelyuvannya. Seriya: Tekhnichni nauky. 2019. 19. P. 108–113. (in Ukrainian) https://doi.org/10.32626/2308-5916.2019-19.108-113

           3.     DSTU 4550: 2006. System of state recognition of objects. The recognition radar. Terms and meanings of concepts. [Valid from 2007-08-01]. Kiev: Gospotrebstandart of Ukraine, 2007. 21 p. (in Ukrainian)

           4.     Zabolotsky V. Digital measurement of the Ukrainian Armed Forces. Under what conditions is this possible? (in Ukrainian) http://opk.com.ua/цифровий-вимір-зсу-за-яких-умов-це-можл/ (accessed: 06.08.2020)

           5.     Ermak S.N., Kasanin A.A., Khozhevets S. N. Device and operation of ground means of the friend of foe identification system. Minsk: BGUIR, 2017. 230 p. (in Russian)

           6.     STANAG 4193. Technical Characteristics of the IFF Mk XIIA System. NATO, 2016. 45 p.

           7.     Kanashchenkov A.I., Merkulov V.I. Radar systems of multifunctional aircraft. Moscow: Radiotechnika, 2006. 656 p. (in Russian)

           8.     Korolyov V.Yu., Polinovsky V.V. Combinatorial model of the Ukrainian key-authenticator and reader. Upravlyayushchiye sistemy i mashiny. 2013. 3 (245). P. 61–80. (in Russian) http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/USM_2013_3_8

           9.     Korolyov V.Yu., Polinovsky V.V., Khodzinsky O.M. Mathematical model of the Ukrainian key authenticator. Komp'yuternaya matematika. 2013. 2. P. 12–23. (in Ukrainian) http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Koma_2013_2_3

       10.     Korolyov V.Yu., Khodzinsky O.M. Solving combinatorial optimization problems on quantum computers. Cybernetics and Computer Technologies. 2020. 2. P. 5–13. (in Ukrainian) https://doi.org/10.34229/2707-451X.20.2.1

       11.     Commercial National Security Algorithm Suit and Quantum Computing FAQ. Assurance Directorate. National Security Agency / Central Security Agency. MFQ U / OO / 815099-15 January 2016. https://cryptome.org/2016/01/CNSA-Suite-and-Quantum-Computing-FAQ.pdf (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       12.     IBM Achieves Highest Quantum Volume to Date, Establishes Roadmap for Reaching Quantum Advantage. https://newsroom.ibm.com/2019-03-04-IBM-Achieves-Highest-Quantum-Volume-to-Date-Establishes-Roadmap-for-Reaching-Quantum-Advantage (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       13.     Grimes R.A. Cryptography Apocalypse. Preparing for the Day When Quantum Computing Breaks Today’s Crypto. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. 2020. p. 272. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119618232

       14.     Grover-Lenstra elliptic-curve factorization method. https://cr.yp.to/papers/pqrsa-20170419.pdf (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       15.     Faugère J.C., Joux A. Algebraic Cryptanalysis of Hidden Field Equation Cryptosystems Using Gröbner Bases. Advances in Cryptology. CRYPTO 2003. Berlin: Springer, 2003. P. 44–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45146-4_3

       16.     List of quantum processors. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_quantum_processors (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       17.     Wang, Y., Li, Y., Yin, Z. et al. 16-qubit IBM universal quantum computer can be fully entangled. npj Quantum Inf 4 (46). 2018. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-018-0095-x

       18.     IBM-Q - Online Quantum Computing Platform. https://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/212957/1/IBM-Q.pdf (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       19.     Bhupesh B. Quantum-computing and Applications. https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.02799 (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       20.     Andriyash E., Bian Z., Chudak F., Drew-Brook M., King A.D., Macready W.G. Technical Report. Boosting integer factoring performance via quantum annealing offsets. 2016. https://www.dwavesys.com/sites/default/files/14-1002A_B_tr_Boosting_integer_factorization_via_quantum_annealing_offsets.pdf (accessed: 06.08.2020)

       21.     Anschuetz E., Olson J., Aspuru-Guzik A., Cao Y. Variational Quantum Factoring. Quantum Technology and Optimization Problems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 11413. March 18, Springer: Munich, 2019. P. 74–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14082-3_7



ISSN 2707-451X (Online)

ISSN 2707-4501 (Print)

Previous  |  Full text (in Ukrainian)  |  Next




Copyright © 2019-2020 V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the NAS of Ukraine,

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

All rights reserved.